Endocrine disorders affect the endocrine system and its secretions called hormones. Regulation and co-ordination of the functioning of different cells is brought about mainly by two systems: endocrine and nervous system. The endocrine system communicates, controls, and coordinates the body’s work. It works with the nervous system, reproductive system, kidneys, gut, liver and fat to help maintain and control body energy levels, reproduction, growth and development, internal balance of body systems, called homeostasis, and responses to surroundings, stress, and injury.
Endocrine glands produce, store, and secrete hormones. Hormones are special chemicals that are released into the blood and carried to the target cells for producing the desired effect. Hormones cause an effect on other cells or tissues of the body. Endocrinology is the branch of medicine that deals with the study of diseases affecting the endocrine system.
The primary endocrine organs of the human body include thyroid, pituitary gland, adrenals, ovaries and testes. Diabetes, hyper and hypothyroidism are the diseases that common people are aware of although a vast number of endocrine disorders exist. Diabetes insipidus is a disease characterized by passing of excessive amounts of diluted urine, which is unresolved even after fluid intake is reduced. The kidneys are unable to concentrate urine in this condition. Anti Diuretic Hormone (ADH) deficiency causes this disease. On the other hand, Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by the presence of excess amounts of blood sugar. There are three main forms of this disease: Type1, Type2, and Gestational. Type1 diabetes occurs due to destruction of pancreatic cells that produce insulin. Type2 diabetes is caused by insulin resistance of tissues. Gestational diabetes is similar to Type2 but it occurs in pregnant women due to the presence of pregnancy hormones that produce insulin resistance.
Diabetes is a killer disease if left untreated. It can lead to cardio vascular problems, impotency, blindness, retinal failure and nerve damage. Accumulation of abdominal fat is considered as a prime reason for the occurrence of Type2 diabetes. A balanced diet and regular exercise is the mantra for controlling diabetes. Insulin injections and other medical remedies are essential along with leading a healthy lifestyle.