The eye is an organ of vision that detects light. With the help of the eye and the light signals it filters and transmits to the brain, we see the world in its full vibrancy and color. Diseases and disorders of the eye and the optic nerve, the system of nerves that transmit light signals as impulses to the brain for their recognition, are detrimental to sight and could lead to problems of blurred vision, defective vision, and loss of sight.
It is a common sight to see people wearing spectacles. In fact, this is so common that it could lead one to believe that wearing spectacles is the norm. However, vision correction by usage of spectacles is to restore the deficit of vision brought about by conditions such as myopia and hypermetropia. Myopia (short sightedness, a condition in which, a person has trouble seeing objects afar) and hypermetropia (long sightedness, a condition in which a person has trouble seeing objects closer to the eye) are the most common of the eye disorders. Called a refractive error, it occurs due to the abnormal focusing of light on the retina caused due to a change in the retinal structure. Glaucoma (abnormal pressure buildup in the eye), cataract (opacity of the lens), Iritis (inflammation of the Iris), Stye, and Conjunctivitis are common eye problems needing redressal by a trained ophthalmologist.
Ageing, sustained exposure to TV and computer screens, disease to one or more parts of the vision system such as cornea, iris, retina, pupil, or the lens could lead to a partial/full loss of vision. A genetically transmitted disorder such as color blindness results in the partial or total lack of ability to distinguish colors. It is genetically transmitted and incurable. Also, sexually transmitted diseases STDs also lead to eye disorders.
Spectacles help a person by helping focus light correctly on the retina, thereby restoring normal vision in people suffering from refractive disorders. Spectacles and spectacle making is a multi billion dollar business. Advancements in the field of medicine have brought about revolutionary changes in vision correction treatments such as contact lenses, plastic lenses, laser surgery and so on.
Much has been written about eye care and treatment of eye disorders. Yoga, exercise involving the eyes, and relaxation techniques in between long hours of work where the eyes go through the maximum strain, can help reduce refractive maintain or reduce disorders. Simple techniques such as rubbing your palm and applying it against the eye, and seeing green trees and leaves at regular intervals in periods where one has to look at computer screens for a long period, can help reduce the strain on eyes.